The Munich agreement is ingrained in the population as a diplomatic disaster and a source of lasting lessons for the future. The political crisis in Britain, caused by Hitler`s ambitions for the Sudetenland, is much less well known. Yet it was one of the most serious of the century. This shows that even in moments of great danger, politicians will of course take care of themselves. But it also reminds us to pay particular attention to the interaction between foreign and domestic policy. More often than we imagine, these two are intertwined. The Chief of Staff of the Czechoslovak Army, General Ludvík Krejčí, indicated that “in about two days our army will be in full condition to resist an attack by all German forces, provided that Poland does not attack us.”  On the 28th The British ambassador to Italy, Lord Perth, called the Italian Foreign Minister, Galeazzo Ciano, to request an urgent meeting.  Perth informed Ciano that Chamberlain had ordered him to invite Mussolini to begin negotiations and to urge Hitler to postpone the ultimatum.  At 11:00 a.m., Ciano Mussolini met with him and informed him of Chamberlain`s proposal; Mussolini agreed and responded by phoning the Italian ambassador to Germany and telling him: “Go immediately to the Führer and tell him that whatever happens, I will be at his side, but that I ask for a delay of twenty-four hours before the hostilities begin.
In the meantime, I will study what can be done to solve the problem.  Hitler received Mussolini`s embassy during discussions with the French ambassador. Hitler told the ambassador: “My good friend, Benito Mussolini, asked me to postpone the marching orders of the German army for twenty-four hours, and I agreed. This was obviously not a concession, since the date of the invasion was set for October 1, 1938.  In an interview with Chamberlain, Lord Perth Mussolini thanked Chamberlain and Chamberlain`s request to ask Mussolini to participate on September 29 in a quadrilateral conference of the United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy in Munich in order to resolve the Sudetenland problem before the 2:00 p.m. deadline. Mussolini agreed.  Hitler`s only demand was to have Mussolini involved in the conference negotiations.  As U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt learned that the conference was scheduled, he telegraphed Chamberlain, “Good Man.”  The Munich Agreement (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; German: Münchner Convention) or Münchner Verrat (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded in Munich on 30 September 1938 by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. It provided for the “cession of the Sudeten German territory” from Czechoslovakia to Germany.  Most of Europe celebrated the agreement because it prevented Adolf Hitler`s threat of war by allowing the annexation of the Sudetenland by Nazi Germany, a region of western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking.
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